Yoga is a physical, mental and spiritual practice that originated in ancient India. The word, yoga, comes from the Sanskrit root “yuj”, which means “to yoke.” Thus, yoga is the practice that aims to harmonise the mind, body and spirit. The ultimate goal of yoga is to achieve liberation.
Yoga has been practiced for thousands of years and, over the years, many different interpretations have developed about what yoga means. Each different type of yoga has its own emphasis and practices.
In the West, yoga is most often associated with the physical practice of asanas, particularly stretching exercises to build flexibility and relax the body. Yoga asanas can also build strength, coordination, balance and stamina. However, this is only one aspect of yoga as asana practice is just one of the “eight limbs” of yoga as listed in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, a key sacred text on the philosophy of yoga. These eight limbs are:
- Yama – Five abstentions (or outer observances)
- Niyama – Five inner observances
- Asana – Meaning “seat” and referring to the physical posture needed for meditation
- Pranayama – Controlled breath
- Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses
- Dharana – Single pointed concentration
- Dhyana – Meditation
- Samadhi – Absorption